Principles and Ethics
Principles of Holotropic Breathwork
by Stanislav and Christina Grof
The theory of Holotropic Breathwork encompasses a broad understanding of the human psyche that includes the biographical, perinatal, and transpersonal dimensions. Phenomena from all these domains are seen as natural and normal constituents of the psychological process; they are accepted, and supported without preference.
Recognition of the fact that non-ordinary states of consciousness induced by Holotropic Breathwork, as well as similar states occurring spontaneously, mobilize intrinsic healing forces in the psyche and the body.
As the process is unfolding, this “inner healer” manifests therapeutic wisdom which transcends the knowledge that can be derived from the cognitive understanding of an individual practitioner or from any specific school of psychotherapy or body work.
The basic elements in Holotropic Breathwork are deeper and accelerated breathing, evocative music, and facilitation of energy release through a specific form of bodywork. This is complemented by creative expression, such as “mandala” drawing, and discussion of the experience. Holotropic Breathwork can be conducted on a one to one basis, or preferably in a group situation, where participants alternate in the role of experiencers and “Sitters”.
Before the first breathing experience, participants receive an in-depth theoretical preparation that includes a description of the major types of phenomena that occur in holotropic sessions (biographical, perinatal and transpersonal) and technical instructions for both experiencers and Sitters. Physical and emotional contraindications are discussed and if there are any concerns, expert assessment is obtained. The facilitator makes clear agreements with clients that they will not damage persons or property or engage in sexual behavior with others during a Holotropic Breathwork session, and that they will stay to participate in and complete the entire session.
Holotropic breathing is faster and deeper than usual; generally no other specific instructions are given before or during the session as to the rate, pattern, and nature of breathing. The experience is entirely internal and largely non-verbal, without interventions. Exceptions are constriction in the throat, management problems, excessive pain or fear threatening the continuation of the session, and explicit request of the breather.
Music (or other forms of acoustic stimulation —drumming, nature sounds, etc.) is an integral part of the Holotropic process. Typically, the choice of music follows a characteristic pattern that reflects the most common unfolding of the holotropic experiences: at the beginning, it is evocative and stimulating, later it becomes increasingly dramatic and dynamic, and finally it reaches a culmination. Following the culmination, it is appropriate to shift gradually to quieter music and end with peaceful, flowing, and meditative selections. Although this seems to represent the statistical average, it should be modified if the energy in the group suggests that a different pattern is indicated.
The role of the Sitter during the session is to be responsive and non-intrusive, to ensure effective breathing, create a safe environment, respect the natural unfolding of the experience, and provide assistance in all situations that require it (including physical support, help during bathroom breaks, bringing tissues or a glass of water, etc.). It is important to remain focused and centered while facing the entire spectrum of possible emotions and behaviors of the Breather. Holotropic Breathwork does not use any interventions that come from intellectual analysis or are based on a priori theoretical constructs.
It is important to leave sufficient time for the sessions, usually between two and three hours. However, as a general rule, the process is allowed to reach a natural closure; in exceptional cases, this can take a few hours. In the termination period the facilitator offers energy release work, if the breathing has not resolved all of the emotional and physical tensions activated during the sessions. The basic principle of this work is to take the clues from the experience and create a situation where the existing symptoms are amplified; while the energy and awareness is held in this area, the subject is encouraged to express fully his or her reaction, whichever form it takes. This form of energy release work is an essential part of the holotropic approach and plays an important role in the completion and integration of the experience.
Facilitators of Holotropic Breathwork should recognize that, when they utilize a technique that evokes a non-ordinary state in a client, there is a potential for unusually intense projections, including regressed longings for nurturing, sexual contact, or spiritual connection. These projections are often focused on the facilitator. In such cases the facilitator should be sensitive to the imbalance of power in the facilitator and client roles and take care to assist clients with such feelings as they arise. Facilitators make agreements to conduct their practice of Holotropic Breathwork in an ethical manner.
Discussion groups take place on the same day after an extended break. During these sessions, the facilitator does not give interpretations of the material, based on a specific theoretical system, including that of Holotropic Breathwork. It is preferable to ask the experiencer for further elaboration and clarification reflecting his or her insights from the session. Jungian amplification in the form of mythological and anthropological references can be very useful in the discussion of the holotropic experiences, as well as the mandalas. On occasion, references to the facilitator’s own experiences in the past or experiences of other people might be appropriate.
If the practice of conducting the sessions itself departs significantly from the above descriptions, the name Holotropic Breathwork should not be used for such a procedure. We ask that it be replaced by a different term and not associated with our names.
The Association for Holotropic Breathwork Internation (AHBI) has developed guidelines for ethical behavior for Facilitators of Holotropic Breathwork, as follows:
The practice of Holotropic Breathwork involves work with clients in nonordinary states of consciousness. It is described in the "Theoretical Principles of Holotropic Breathwork" by Stanislav and Christina Grof. As individuals or as individuals working in organizations, we subscribe to the value of self-examination in order to promote personal growth in ethics. Because Facilitators who keep these Agreements avoid behavior which may be exploitative to participants and may also bring injury to the larger Holotropic Breathwork community, we subscribe to the principle that we need to give and receive feedback from each other in order to maintain the highest integrity in the Holotropic Breathwork community. We make the following agreements which specifically apply to our relationship with clients as Facilitators of Holotropic Breathwork
We commit ourselves as facilitators to practice Holotropic Breathwork only within the limitations of our training and competence.
We commit ourselves as facilitators to be open to receive feedback from other facilitators. We also commit ourselves to give feedback to other facilitators, especially when we believe that the other facilitators have failed to keep one of the these agreements.
We will keep workshop clients/participants confidences within the limits of the law.
We create a safe setting for clients, as defined by the Holotropic Breathwork Principles.
We will represent ourselves and act only within the bounds of our experience and competence and help our apprentices and trainees to do the same.
If we are certified and qualified to supervise trainees as apprentices, we agree to be responsible for providing ethical guidance to our apprentices (including these agreements) while they are under our supervision.
We continue to increase our Holotropic Breathwork competence.
As researchers, educators, and authors we are dedicated to presenting accurate information and to citing our sources.
Dual relationships risk role confusion and the appearance or reality of exploiting clients for personal gain. We agree to discuss with our peers any of our relationships with participants or apprentices. We agree to avoid and refrain from dual relationships which may be exploitative sexually, emotionally, spiritually, economically, hierarchically, or ideologically.
We do not invite, project, respond to, or allow any sexual contact with our clients or apprentices.
We provide referrals to workshop participants who require follow-up or referral to local community resources.
We seek appropriate professional assistance for our own personal problems or conflicts which may impair our work performance or professional judgments.
We respect the emotional, physical, mental, and spiritual autonomy of our clients. We enable them to choose freely with respect to participating in Holotropic Breathwork, following suggestions, and accepting physical interventions.
We maintain clear and honest business practices, including making agreements regarding appointments, workshop times, and fees.
In establishing the rates for our services we consider the financial situation of our clients.
We recognize a responsibility to participate in activities that contribute to the community, including devoting a portion of our services for little or no financial reward.